Defining Physics-Informed Generative AI

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Rembrand Team
October 26, 2023
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Generative artificial intelligence for visual content is subdomain within the broader field of machine learning, focused on the creation and augmentation of content derived from existing visual sources. These advanced AI models possess the capability to generate realistic and diverse images and videos, which find widespread applications across various industries, such as entertainment, education, art, and advertising. In addition to generating new content, visual generative AI models can enhance or manipulate pre-existing images and videos by incorporating or eliminating elements, transforming styles or backgrounds, or producing concise video summaries. This document delves into the realm of photo-realistic, Physics-Informed Generative AI (Copyright 2023) and its application in the context of virtual product insertion within videos, highlighting the challenges to be overcome.

Challenges of fully-automated virtual product insertion in videos

Despite advancements in artificial intelligence (AI) and computer vision, virtual product placement remains a complex problem for AI systems to tackle. Rendering objects virtually in post-production videos involves two main subproblems:

  1. Robust and accurate detection and recognition of objects, scenes, and contexts in videos, which can enable the identification of suitable places and moments for inserting virtual products or brands.
  2. Realistic and seamless rendering and blending of virtual objects or brands into videos, which can preserve the lighting, shading, occlusion, perspective, and motion consistency between the original and the inserted content.

Details of challenges facing fully-automated systems for virtual product insertion

The difficulty of solving these two problems stems from multiple factors, including camera estimation, the need for multi-view stereo, scene layout estimation, high dynamic range (HDR) lighting estimation, depth of field estimation, handling dynamic content, physically-based rendering (PBR) asset acquisition, and compositing. This article explores the challenges in each of these areas and highlights their significance in achieving realistic and seamless virtual product placement.

Camera Estimation: To create a convincing virtual product placement, it is essential to accurately estimate the camera’s intrinsic and extrinsic parameters, as well as any lens distortion. Intrinsic parameters include focal length, sensor size, and principal point, while extrinsic parameters represent the camera’s position and orientation in the world coordinate system. Estimating these parameters is challenging due to the inherent limitations of single-view images and the computational complexity of multi-view approaches.

The Need for Multi-View Stereo: Multi-view stereo (MVS) techniques provide more accurate 3D scene reconstruction and camera parameter estimation by utilizing multiple images captured from different viewpoints. However, MVS methods require a significant amount of input data and computational power, which can be prohibitive in some applications. Moreover, in cases where multiple views are unavailable, AI systems must rely on less accurate single-view methods, leading to potential inconsistencies in virtual product placement.

Scene Layout Estimation: Understanding the 3D layout of a scene is crucial for placing virtual objects seamlessly within the environment. This involves detecting and segmenting objects in the scene, estimating their depth and size, and identifying suitable insertion points for virtual products. AI systems often struggle with these tasks due to the complexity of real-world scenes, occlusions, and varying lighting conditions.

HDR Lighting Estimation: To achieve realistic virtual product placement, it is essential to accurately estimate the lighting conditions of the environment, including the intensity, color, and direction of light sources. High dynamic range (HDR) lighting estimation techniques can capture a wide range of luminance values in real-world scenes, enabling AI systems to recreate more realistic and consistent lighting for virtual objects. However, this process is computationally expensive and can be challenging in cases where the input image has limited dynamic range.

Depth of Field Estimation: Estimating the depth of field in an image is necessary for matching the blur and focus levels of virtual objects with their surroundings. This can be a challenging task for AI systems, as it requires accurately determining the distance between the camera and objects in the scene and estimating the camera’s aperture settings. Inaccurate depth of field estimation can result in virtual objects appearing out of focus or inconsistent with the rest of the scene.

Handling Dynamic Content: Virtual product placement in dynamic scenes, such as those with moving objects or changing lighting conditions, poses additional challenges for AI systems. Accurately tracking object motion, predicting lighting changes, and updating virtual object placement in real-time are computationally demanding tasks that require advanced algorithms and hardware resources.

PBR Asset Acquisition: Physically-based rendering (PBR) assets are digital representations of real-world objects with accurate material properties, such as reflectance, roughness, and opacity. Acquiring high-quality PBR assets is essential for creating realistic virtual products but can be time-consuming and labor-intensive. AI systems can potentially automate this process but face challenges in handling the wide variety of materials, textures, and lighting conditions found in real-world